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Indeed, most research investigating social media discussions round social movements hardly ever examine online (e.g., opinions expressed on social media) to offline (e.g., opinion surveys) trends. Yet, comparing opinions expressed online and offline is particularly necessary on circumstance that the 2 could not often converge. While social media merely serve to connect like-minded customers who already share and support comparable concepts and concerns (Cinelli et al. 2021), opinion surveys focus on representative samples (of sub-groups) of the population. Further, most social media content about social movements’ agendas tends to be produced and discussed by a minority of politically engaged users who do not essentially symbolize the broader public (Tucker et al. 2018). It is thus essential to evaluate the extent to which social media discussions stemming from completely different actors reflect the prevalent considerations raised by the broader public. This is particularly necessary as the reliance on social media by these different actors to express their views can lead to an elevated polarisation of societal debates . The COVID-19 disaster generated an unprecedented decline in financial activity, employment and hours worked.

Similarly, the wage distribution signifies a higher fraction of ladies amongst low earners. The determine additionally exhibits that, for low wage-occupancy rate levels, the male distribution shifted rightward in 2020, whereas the female distribution didn’t; for larger wage-occupancy price levels, both male and female distributions shifted rightward. Column introduces the full-time dummy and its interactions with the feminine and COVID index dummies. The estimation outcomes reveal that full-time working women minimize their relative hours labored greater than males in the course of the pandemic. This result helps the argument that part-time working girls had sufficient flexibility to reconcile the extra childcare needs with their work schedule and subsequently have been comparatively much less affected. Full-time working ladies did not have the identical flexibility, making it more difficult to proceed working the usual hours in the course of the pandemic.

  • Now more than ever, we put our efforts to support entrepreneurial options to the sanitary disaster as well as other epidemic issues.
  • Unlike the USA, the presence of kids in the family did not worsen labor gender gaps.
  • In 1968, the Federal Council thought-about signing the European Convention on Human Rights, without accepting the clause regarding women’s political rights.
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  • These research additionally counsel that there are dominant ideologies surrounding the gender equality debate, thus resulting in political polarisation on gender associated issues.
  • For this cause, the time period “she-cession” has been utilized by researchers and the media to discuss with the coronavirus-induced recession started in 2020.
  • To summarize, girls had been extra prone to depart the labor market at the peak of the pandemic and not to reenter as the labor market started to get well.

At the start of the examine part , further demographic knowledge (e.g. marital standing, occupation) and a wide selection of psychosocial components have been assessed through online questionnaires. Psychosocial measures embrace psychological traits, bodily and mental health outcomes, behavioral features, and interpersonal factors. The validated self-report questionnaires assessed in the center of the study may be present in Table1, which lists the measured constructs, the name of the assessment instrument, the authors, and the variety of items of the instrument . The questionnaires are completed firstly and at the end of the study . To date, surveys have been the way to evaluate this congruence between the public and politicians’ positioning on similar issues . However, social media can function a complementary picture by offering on-line dynamics. Beyond the social movement literature, the concept of interrelated offline and on-line agendas represents a significant matter within the field of political communication (Gilardi et al. 2021; Posegga and Jungherr 2019).

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In particular, Twitter discussions have been dominated by left-oriented political accounts , which also displays the extra optimistic attitudes towards gender equality from citizens and politicians with a left-leaning orientation as measured in surveys. However, our findings additionally present swiss girls that politicians from the extreme-right additionally engaged in intensive tweeting to voice their opposing views. Therefore, though right-leaning events and politicians talked less about gender associated issues on Twitter, they may have been speaking extra negatively about gender equality than left-leaning actors.

For instance, it could be that these themes had been put ahead as different attainable issues on which the political realm was expected to supply coverage options. The studies outlined above remain, nevertheless, in the framework of social media research without mobilising other information sources, corresponding to opinion surveys, to assess the potential of social media messages to impression public opinion on gender equality. The study of Adams-Cohen proposes to handle the question of causality within the area of same-sex marriage. More precisely, it makes use of Twitter information and machine-learning strategies to analyse the causal impact of the Supreme Court’s legalization of same-sex marriage on the federal stage within the United States on political sentiment and discourse in the path of homosexual rights. Results showed that there was a relatively stronger adverse response in public opinion in the path of same-sex marriage in states where the Court’s ruling produced a policy change as in comparison with that of different states.

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Nonetheless, this research can additionally be not in a position to depend on survey information to benchmark its findings. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on labor market gender gaps, we calculate the average transition probabilities between completely different labor market statuses from one quarter to the following separately for male and female respondents over time. Table 2 panels and report the adjustments in 2020Q2 and 2020Q3-Q4, respectively, relative to the 12 months before, when no lockdown restrictions were in place. E, U, and NA refer to respondents’ present labor market status (employed, unemployed, and non-active, respectively); L.E, L.U, and L.NA point out their standing in the previous quarter. The COVID-19 pandemic lowered employment and participation, and it elevated unemployment for male as properly as female respondents in Switzerland.

We measure wage by dividing a respondent’s annual revenue by his or her occupation price.Footnote 19 Figure 9 reveals the wage distribution of female and male respondents in 2019 and 2020. In each years, men’s wage distribution is located to the proper of women’s, indicating that males earn on common more than girls after controlling for the occupation fee. In addition to this, men’s distribution is extra heavily skewed to the best, indicating a bigger fraction of males among the many high earners.

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